Spanish Health System Overview
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Population, Mid-Year 2019: 46,737,000
Population Density (Population Per Square Kilometer), Mid-Year 2019: 94
Projected Population Mid-Year 2030: 46,230,000
Percentage of Population Under Age 25 Years, Mid-Year 2019: 24%
Percentage of Population 65 Years Or Over, Mid-Year 2019: 20%
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019: Data Booklet (ST/ESA/SER.A/424).
Annual Population Growth Rate 2000-2018: 0.7%
Projected Annual Population Growth Rate 2018-2030: -0.1%
Proportion of Urban Population, 2018: 80%
Annual Growth Rate of Urban Population 2000-2018: 1.0%
Projected Annual Growth Rate of Urban Population 2018-2030: 0.2%
Source: UNICEF (2019). The State of the World’s Children 2019. Children, Food and Nutrition: Growing well in a changing world. UNICEF, New York.
“The Spanish population has increased 12% between 1995 and 2005, mainly due to a strong immigration flow, stagnated between 2005 and 2010, experiencing a slight decline until 2016. Fertility rates remained low throughout the period, with a slight increase between 2000 and 2005, still well below the replacement rate of the population. Further, population aged 65 and above has steadily increased over time, reaching 19.2% in 2016 (Table 1.1). Notably, in 2015 there were more deaths than births, a phenomenon only seen before during the 1918 flu pandemic and the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War.
“The economic and financial downturn resulted in a decrease of the foreign population, activating a migratory outflow of Spanish people, which has led to a negative migratory balance since 2011 until 2015. The sharpest emigration flow occurred in 2009, with a relative reduction of 34.4% in a year when almost 200 000 people left the country. Concurrently, the emigration flow increased until 2013, with 532303 individuals leaving the country in 2013. Notably, the flow of Spanish people leaving the country has steadily grown until 2016, with more than 556 000 people leaving since 2009. The year 2016 witnessed a net reduction of 23540 Spanish people, whereas the foreign population increased by 112666 individuals (INE, 2017b).
“The official language is Spanish, also called Castilian, which coexists with other official languages at regional level, including Basque, Catalan and Galician.”
Source: Bernal-Delgado E, García-Armesto S, Oliva J, Sánchez Martínez FI, Repullo JR, PeñaLongobardo LM, Ridao-López M, Hernández-Quevedo C. Spain: Health system review. Health Systems in Transition, 2018;20(2):1–179.
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Page last updated May 16, 2021 by Doug McVay, Editor.