Population (2018): 82,930,000
Gross National Income, Atlas method (Current USD) (Billions) (2018): $3,912.93
GNI per capita, Atlas method (Current USD) (2018): $47,180
Income Share Held by Lowest 20% (2018): 7.8%
Gross Domestic Product (Current USD) (Billions) (2018): $3,996.76
Source: World Bank. Country Profile: Germany. World Development Indicators. Last accessed Oct. 27, 2019.
Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (Current USD) (2010-2018): $44,681.10
Share of Household Income (2010-2018):
Bottom 40%: 20.7%; Top 20%: 39.7%; Bottom 20%: 7.8%
Gini Coefficient (2010-2018): 31.7
Palma Index of Income Inequality (2010-2018): NA
Gini coefficient – Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
Palma index of income inequality – Palma index is defined as the ratio of the richest 10% of the population’s share of gross national income divided by the poorest 40%’s share.
Source: UNICEF (2019). The State of the World’s Children 2019. Children, Food and Nutrition: Growing well in a changing world. UNICEF, New York.
“Germany is a member of the G8 group of leading industrial nations. In 2012, Germany’s GDP amounted to more than €2.6 trillion,5 or approximately €32 554 per capita. Annual real GDP growth reached a post-reunification peak of 3.2% in 2000 but fell to −0.2% in 2003. By the end of 2008, this indicator had risen again, reaching 1.0% for that year. In the wake of the global economic downturn, GDP fell in 2009 to slightly above €2.4 trillion (Table 1.2). In real terms, this represents a contraction of roughly 5.1%, surpassing the 0.8% decline in 1993, which had been the largest since reunification. Average annual real GDP growth in Germany has remained below the OECD average since 1990 (OECD, 2013a).
“During the 2000s, the unemployment rate in Germany was above the EU and OECD average. After a brief decline at the turn of the millennium, it began to increase again over the following years, only to decrease to 7.8% in 2008 (Table 1.2). Due to the increasing unemployment rate in other countries and the simultaneous decline in Germany (to 7.7% in 2010 after 8.2% in 2009), since 2009 the German unemployment rate has been below international average. In 2012, the unemployment rate was 6.8%, ranging in the eastern part of Germany (average, 10.7%) between 8.5% in Thuringia and 12.0% in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. In the western part of the country (average, 5.9%), the unemployment rate varied between 3.7% in Bavaria and 11.2% in Bremen. There is also a north–south divide in unemployment, with a lower rate in the south part of Germany.
“Between 1992 and 2005, the size of the labour force as a share of the total population decreased only slightly, from 47.2% to 47.0%, and then rose to 51.9% in 2012. The percentage of individuals subject to mandatory social insurance contributions fell from 33.9% in 2000 to 31.8% in 2005, only to rise to 35.4% in 2012. Between 2000 and 2012, full-time employment declined in favour of self-employment and part-time work (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2013g). These trends have an impact on the revenue side of the various statutory insurance schemes (see section 3.3.2). The inequality of income distribution tends to grow in Germany, as shown by the increasing Gini coefficient.”
Source: Busse R, Blümel M. Germany: health system review. Health Systems in Transition, 2014, 16(2):1–296.
Health Systems Facts is a project of the Real Reporting Foundation. We provide reliable statistics and other data from authoritative sources regarding health systems in the US and several other nations.
Page last updated Dec. 2, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor.