“To assess a health system, one must measure five things: the overall level of health; the distribution of health in the population; the overall level of responsiveness; the distribution of responsiveness; and the distribution of financial contribution. For each one, WHO has used existing sources or newly generated data to calculate measures of attainment for the countries where information could be obtained. These data were also used to estimate values when particular numbers were judged unreliable, and to estimate attainment and performance for all other Member States. Several of these measures are novel and are explained in detail in the Statistical Annex, where all the estimates are given, along with intervals expressing the uncertainty or degree of confidence in the point estimate. The correct value for any indicator is estimated to have an 80% probability of falling within the uncertainty interval, with chances of 10% each of falling below the low value or above the high one. This recognition of inexactness underscores the importance of getting more and better data on all the basic indicators of population health, responsiveness and fairness in financial contribution, a task which forms part of WHO’s continuing programme of work.
“The achievements with respect to each objective are used to rank countries, as are the overall measures of achievement and performance described below. Since a given country or health system may have very different ranks on different attainments, Annex Table 1 shows the complete ranking for all Member States on all the measures. In several subsequent tables, countries are ranked in order of achievement or performance, and the order varies from one table to another. Since the ranking is based on estimates which include uncertainty as to the exact values, the rank assigned also includes uncertainty: a health system is not always assigned a specific position relative to all others but is estimated to lie somewhere within a narrower or broader range, depending on the uncertainties in the calculation. The ranks of different health systems therefore sometimes overlap to a greater or lesser degree, and two or more countries may have the same rank.”
Source: World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2000: Health Systems : Improving Performance. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000. https://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/