Medical Graduates Per 100,000 Population (2017): 6.8
Nursing Graduates Per 100,000 Population (2017): 51.5
Percent Share of Foreign-Trained Doctors (2017): NA%
Percent Share of Foreign-Trained Nurses (2017): NA%
Source: OECD (2019), Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/4dd50c09-en.
“(School of Mediciine, Faculty of Medicine)
“Entrance fee, tuition fee etc.
|Item||Upon entry||2nd year onwards|
|Practical training fee||400,000||400,000|
|Facilities development fee||1,000,000||1,000,000|
|Educational enrichment fee||2,500,000||500,000|
“The 35 students with the highest scores on the regular entrance examination and the 20 students with the highest scores on the National Center Test for University Admissions (Senta Shiken) are exempted from paying the tuition fee of 2,500,000 yen and the educational enrichment fee of 2,500,000 yen, totaling 5,000,000, for the first year.”
Source: Tokyo Medical University. University Fees: School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine. From the web at https://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/english/faculty/graduate/doctor/fees.html, last accessed Feb 5, 2020.
“Government subsidies to national universities have been falling by 1% per year since 2004. Government spending was about 12.4 billion yen in 2004 and declined to about 10.9 billion yen in 2016. Given the Japanese government’s fiscal position, there is little capacity for further funding, and the trend of reduced subsidies is likely to continue. Government subsidies to private universities and colleges were stable over that 12-year period, although the ratio of subsidies to current expenditure decreased to less than 10%. Almost three out of four students attend private universities in Japan.
“Although the increase in tuition fees has been modest in recent years, family disposable income has been decreasing. This has led to a gradual increase in the ratio of tuition fees to family disposable income (Fig. 3). In Japan and other East Asian countries, parents have traditionally been responsible for financing the education of their children. Thus the burden of tuition on families has been increasing, especially for low-income families.
“The household share of higher education expenditure is more than half of the total expenditure on higher education in Japan, and among the most expensive in the world (see OECD, 2015). Public expenditure on tertiary education is among the lowest for OECD countries. Households in Japan already bear a significant burden of higher education costs, but the cost-sharing trend in Japan, as elsewhere, is moving away from public toward private sources.”
Source: Shiro Armstrong, Lorraine Dearden, Masayuki Kobayashi, Nobuko Nagase, Student loans in Japan: Current problems and possible solutions, Economics of Education Review, Volume 71, 2019, Pages 120-134, ISSN 0272-7757, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2018.10.012.